Natural Phenomenon – Catatumbo Lightning

220px-Catatumbolightning

The Catatumbo Lightning (Spanish: Relámpago del Catatumbo) is an atmospheric phenomenon in Venezuela. It occurs only over the mouth of the Catatumbo River where it empties into Lake Maracaibo. The frequent, powerful flashes of lightning over this relatively small area are considered to be the world’s largest single generator of tropospheric ozone.

It originates from a mass of storm clouds at a height of more than 5 km, and occurs during 140 to 160 nights a year, 10 hours per day and up to 280 times per hour. It occurs over and around Lake Maracaibo, typically over the bog area formed where the Catatumbo River flows into the lake.

After appearing continually for centuries, the lightning ceased from January to April 2010, apparently due to drought. This raised fears that it might have been extinguished permanently. The phenomenon reappeared after several months.

Location and formation mechanism

720px-Lake_Maracaibo_map

The Catatumbo lightning usually develops between the coordinates 8°30′N 71°0′W and 9°45′N 73°0′W. The storms (and associated lightning) are likely the result of the winds blowing across the Maracaibo Lake and surrounding swampy plains. These air masses inevitably meet the high mountain ridges of the Andes, the Perijá Mountains (3,750 m), and Mérida’s Cordillera, enclosing the plain from three sides. The heat and moisture collected across the plains creates electrical charges and, as the air masses are destabilized at the mountain ridges, result in almost continual thunderstorm activity. The phenomenon is characterized by almost continuous lightning, mostly within the clouds, which is produced in a large vertical development of clouds that form large electric arcs between 2 and 10 km in height (or more). The lightning tends to start approximately one hour after dusk.

Among the major modern studies there is the one done by Melchor Centeno, who attributes the origin of the thunderstorms to closed wind circulation in the region. Between 1966 and 1970, Andrew Zavrostky investigated the area three times, with assistance from the University of the Andes. He concluded that the lightning has several epicenters in the marshes of Juan Manuel de Aguas National Park, Claras Aguas Negras, and west Lake Maracaibo. In 1991 he suggested that the phenomenon occurred due to cold and warm air currents meeting around the area. The study also speculated that an isolated cause for the lightning might be the presence of uranium in the bedrock.

Between 1997 and 2000 Nelson Falcón conducted several studies, and produced the first microphysics model of the Catatumbo Lightning. He identified the methane produced by the swamps and the oil deposits in the area as a major cause of the phenomenon. It has been noted to have little effect on local flora such as ferns, despite concerns.

Historical references

The first written mention of the Catatumbo lightning was in the epic poem “La Dragontea” (1597) by Lope de Vega, which recounts the defeat of English raider Sir Francis Drake. The Prussian naturalist and explorer Alexander von Humboldt once described it as “electrical explosions that are like phosphorescent gleam.” Italian geographer Agustin Codazzi described it as a “lightning that seems to arise from the continued Zulia river and its surroundings.” The phenomenon became so celebrated that it was depicted in the flag and coat of arms of the state of Zulia, which contains Lake Maracaibo, and mentioned in the state’s anthem. This phenomenon has been popularly known for centuries as the Lighthouse of Maracaibo, since it is visible for miles around Lake Maracaibo.

In February 2014, The Weather Channel featured an article stating that the Catatumbo Lightning phenomenon in Venezuela had made it into the Guinness Book of World Records for the most lightning strikes in one region at any given time.

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My Holiday

Hey! In this opportunity i will tell you what i did last holiday. Enjoy reading!

We have a total of almost 3 weeks of holiday, while many of my friends went somewhere for holiday with their family (a lot of them went to Bali), i spent the first two weeks joining Basic Education (Pendidikan Dasar), it was held by my extracurricular : Jamadagni. My Holiday started at 24th of December and i prepared myself for the basic education which started at 27th of December, it lasted for 7 days until 2nd of January.

I will tell a bit about what i did in the basic education, basically in the basic education we are taught the basic things to survive in nature by our seniors, first we were taught how to do it and after that we try to do it ourself. Its to much to tell all the things i did in the basic education so i wont tell it all but i will show you some pictures.

Equipment Check

Equipment Check

Open Navigation

Open Navigation

After the inauguration

After the inauguration

On the last day we didn’t know that it was our inauguration and when we were asked to turn around we hear “Pelantikan Anggota Muda” we were all suprised and almost all of us cry but it was because we were really happy that it was finally over, after the inauguration we take a lot of photo and after we went home. For the last remaining week of my holiday i just stayed at home.

Elephant and Friends

One day an elephant wandered into a forest in search of friends.

He saw a monkey on a tree.

“Will you be my friend?” asked the elephant.

Replied the monkey, “You are too big. You can not swing from trees like me.”

Next, the elephant met a rabbit. He asked him to be his friends.

But the rabbit said, “You are too big to play in my burrow!”

Then the elephant met a frog.

“Will you be my friend? He asked.

“How can I?” asked the frog.

“You are too big to leap about like me.”

The elephant was upset. He met a fox next.

“Will you be my friend?” he asked the fox.

The fox said, “Sorry, sir, you are too big.”

The next day, the elephant saw all the animals in the forest running for their lives.

The elephant asked them what the matter was.

The bear replied, “There is a tier in the forest. He’s trying to gobble us all up!”

The animals all ran away to hide.

The elephant wondered what he could do to solve everyone in the forest.

Meanwhile, the tiger kept eating up whoever he could find.

The elephant walked up to the tiger and said, “Please, Mr. Tiger, do not eat up these poor animals.”

“Mind your own business!” growled the tiger.

The elephant has a no choice but to give the tiger a hefty kick.

The frightened tiger ran for his life.

The elephant ambled back into the forest to announce the good news to everyone.

All the animals thanked the elephant.

They said, “You are just the right size to be our friend.”

MATSWAPATI!


Matswapati is a cultural festival that is made by my school SMAN 3 Bandung to celebrate Bandung’s birthday. The event was held on 27th September and took place in Lapangan Bali, it was a field near our school. Matswapati name came from a Wayang’s(indonesian puppet) name.

Every class had their unique traditional costumes and their own stands at Lapangan Bali and have to join the parade. Because it’s Bandung’s birthday so my class use Bandung traditional costume, the boys wears pangsi(sundanese clothes) while the girls wears kebaya. We must gather at seven o’clock and parade around bandung with our traditional costumes. It was fun because when we cross the street the cars and motorcycle keep honking at us so that we walk faster. We shouted “MATSWAPATI!” along the journey, it was really fun.

After the parade we went back to Lapangan Bali. The boys in my class go to the food fest and eat there. A few hours after that we feel bored so me and my friend went futsal against IPA 7, it was fun and we won the match even though only by 1 point. We went back to Lapangan Bali and watch wayang show it was really funny and most of the audience laugh.

In the afternoon the guest star Barsena start performing, he was really good and talented. After that another guest star glenn fredly perform he was awesome, but unfortunately i have to went home early because my parents already pick me up.

That’s all about MATSWAPATI i hope you enjoy reading it

 

STONEHENGE

It’s been a long time since a post in my blog, and now i will post about Stonehenge.

Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument located in Wiltshire, England. One of the most famous sites in the world, Stonehenge is the remains of a ring of standing stones set within earthworks. It is in the middle of the most dense complex of Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments in England, including several hundred burial mounds.

Archaeologists believe it was built anywhere from 3000 BC to 2000 BC. Radiocarbon dating in 2008 suggested that the first stones were raised between 2400 and 2200 BC, whilst another theory suggests that bluestones may have been raised at the site as early as 3000 BC.

The surrounding circular earth bank and ditch, which constitute the earliest phase of the monument, have been dated to about 3100 BC. The site and its surroundings were added to the UNESCO’s list of World Heritage Sites in 1986 in a co-listing with Avebury Henge. It is a national legally protected Scheduled Ancient Monument. Stonehenge is owned by the Crown and managed by English Heritage, while the surrounding land is owned by the National Trust.

Archaeological evidence found by the Stonehenge Riverside Project in 2008 indicates that Stonehenge could have been a burial ground from its earliest beginnings. The dating of cremated remains found on the site indicate that deposits contain human bone from as early as 3000 BC, when the ditch and bank were first dug. Such deposits continued at Stonehenge for at least another 500 years. The site is a place of religious significance and pilgrimage in Neo-Druidry.

 

Source: Wikipedia

Unforgettable Experience

Hello! Welcome back to my blog! Now i’m will tell you about my ‘unforgettable experience’.

Last holiday i went to Hongkong a country near China. I went there with my family. We wanted to went there after we find a lot of interesting place and tourism site. We plan it for a long time about 4/5 months and finally we make it real. We went there after I finished ‘UN’.  I went there by plane for about 6 hours, the plane didn’t go directly there it stopped at Malaysia first to drop some passengers, the plane stopped there for about 2 hours so i can ate some snacks at the airport. I arrived on the night and went straight to the hostel that we already booked by Taxi, i’m so sleepy and tired sothe  after i tidy up my belongings i went to sleep.

In Hongkong i went to many places such as Disney Land, Madame Tussaud, Victoria Peak and many other places. I also went to Macau for a day. I won’t tell all about that places only some of it.

one of the performer

one of the performer

i feel small

i feel small

First, I will tell about my trip at Disney Land HK. It was an amazing and beautiful places with many attractions to be played, there also a lot of permorfance by the crew there. I take a look around Disney Land and played a lot of attractions it was a huge theme park. Unfortunately the weather is really hot, i sweat ate ice cream a lot. But it was a good place to visit if you went to Hongkong.

Now, i will tell you about my trip at Madame Tussaud. It was a unique place with a lot of famous people like artist or public figure and inventors manequin. It was really crowded so we have to wait if we want to take the photo of or with the manequin. The manequin look like real and alive some of them are scary. I took a lot of photo there. Oh yeah I also went to the haunted house there it was scary. Reaaaally good place to visit in Hongkong.

Well, that’s all for now thank you for reading. Have a good day!

My New Friend

I have a new friend. His name is Riansyah Widisaputra, i usually cal him Rian. He come from 5 Junior High School so i just met him in 3 Senior High School, he’s my classmate at X Acceleration 2 in 3 Senior High School Bandung. He was born in Purworejo, August 16th 1998. He’s 1 year older than me. He have and older brother with only a year gap. His father is Betawi (people who’s born at Jakarta) while his mother is Javanese.

i know, he’s embarrasing

I will tell little bit further about him and his family, he have on brother that was born on 23 june 1997 his name is Randyasta Adipratama he’s studying at 7 Senior High School Bandung. His father name is and was born on 27 September 1973, he work as BUMN’s employee. His mother name is Herny Widiasih and was born on 24 December 1973, she work at “Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan RI”. Rian like to spend time with his family or atleast on the phone if he can’t meet them.He love animal and have one pet, it’s arowana. He’s taking care of it since it was a little fish until now it was a big arowana and have a bigger and have a sharp teeth it can also eat frogs or fish, but he still love it. He have many hobby such as playing football, reading a book, drawing something and some strange hobby of him.

He wanted to be an architect in the future since 4th grade. He wanted to be an architect because he love drawing and designing, so he want to continue his study in ITB and take sappk majors. He’s working hard to achieve it, he study hard in mathematics and try to be careful in calculating because it can be a mess in real life when a architecting a house and miss even only a bit of calculation. He even have his own quotes “if there is something that you think it’s very hard, and you can’t do, why don’t you think it’s a little things that you can learn and you can do it easily. So don’t be negative thinking and do it with pleasure”

That’s a short biography of my friend thank you for reading! Goodbye and have a good day